Quantum Physics

Quantum entanglement is a quantum mechanical phenomenon in which the quantum states of two or more objects have to be described with reference to each other, even though the individual objects may be spatially separated.

I find this to be a fascinating topic.  The best way to describe these two “entities” is to think of them as being part of the same function.  

The strangeness of the quantum world is that these functions (often thought of as waves) exist within a domain.  Within this domain, the quantum “particle” is said to existing only in terms of probability rather than in definitive terms.  In the Cartesian world of modeling, we expect to see a particle exist at location x,y,z at time t.  In the world of the very small, those quantum particles have a probability of existing at that location.  In reality there could be multiple location at which a particle can exist (having the same probability). The quantum weirdness says that the particle exists in all of those location at the same time.  In entanglement, the distant particle is a superposition of the other (I am using distance as relative to the observer). The act of observing a quantum system causes it to collapse into a finite particle/state.

Matter as Particles and Waves

Quantum Physics says that matter exists as particles and waves.  A particle, much like a marble, can be observed as being in a single location (x,y,z) at a certain time (t).  The de Broglie hypothesis states that all matter has a wave-like nature.  At the quantum world of the very small, this can be seen through the famous “double split experiment”.

Double Split Experiment

With Quantum Physics, the mechanics of the physical word that Newtonian Physics model define are suddenly redefined.  

The Newtonian model is deterministic, that is to say that everything can be determined if we understand all the variables that are in play.  In a real sense, Newton’s system of equations can be used to define everything that will happen in the Universe in a predetermined sense.  The very actions that we take are a result of physical systems responding to a biochemical process involving synaptic electrical network engaging biological responses (though a series of predictable pathways).  In this sense, everything that we experience, do or observe is predetermined by an elaborate matrix of equations.  

Quantum mechanics throws a wrench into this non-volitional cosmos by introducing a truly random nature at the very fundamental building blocks of all Creation.  The attributes of these quantum elements, these tiny sub-atomic particles that make up all of matter and transfer energy, are ultimately unpredictable.  The attributes of these particles are said to exist as probabilities.  There is a probability that a electron surrounding the nucleus of an atom would exist at a particular orbit (atomic orbitals).  The Heisenberg uncertainty principle says that even when we know one attribute of a quantum particle (e.g. the location of an electron) one of the other attributes will remain completely uncertain (e.g. the momentum). 


Quantum Mechanics: The Electron as a Wave

In quantum mechanics, the electron is often described as a wave. This wave has a wavelength and a frequency, which are related to the electron’s energy and momentum. The frequency of the wave is the energy, while the wave length in that direction is the momentum.

One of the remarkable symmetries of quantum mechanics is that the wave function of the electron cannot be directly observed. Instead, we can only observe the probability of finding the electron in a particular location. This probability is calculated by squaring the wave function.

The information about the electron’s position, momentum, and energy is lost when we square the wave function. This is why it may seem pointless to talk about the wave function of the electron in the first place. However, this wave function is still important because it allows us to understand the behavior of the electron in space.

In the 1970s, scientists realized that the wave function of the electron could be manipulated by changing its frequency and momentum. This led to the development of the concept of a gauge field, which is a wave with a frequency and momentum that is the sum of the two. The gauge field is used to conserve momentum and energy when we make changes to the wave function of the electron.

The symmetry principle of quantum mechanics states that an electron with a certain wavelength and frequency, with a gauge field moving along right on top of it, is indistinguishable from an electron with a different momentum and energy and no gauge field on top. This symmetry allows us to explore the behavior of the electron in new ways.

One of the most important consequences of this symmetry is the electromagnetic force, which is described by the Feynman diagram in quantum mechanics. The electromagnetic force is the underlying symmetry principle that allows us to understand the behavior of charged particles in space.

The same principles apply to quarks, which are the building blocks of protons and neutrons. In the 1970s, scientists discovered that all forces are gauge forces, including gravity. This led to a new understanding of particle physics and the fundamental forces that govern the universe.

In conclusion, the electron is a wave in quantum mechanics, and its wave function cannot be directly observed. However, this wave function is still important because it allows us to understand the behavior of the electron in space. The symmetry principle of quantum mechanics allows us to explore the behavior of the electron in new ways, leading to the development of the electromagnetic force and the understanding of all forces as gauge forces.